Chireno, Texas is located 18 miles southeast of Nacogdoches in Nacogdoches County. The are was first settled by Spanish pioneers in 1790 on grants they received from the Spanish government. In 1870, the first Anglo settler to secured land from José Antonio Chirino, for whom the town was named. By 1839, Chireno organized the first public school. In 1866, the appearance of oil near Chireno prompted the drilling of one of the first oil wells in Texas. Chireno strongly supported the Confederacy during the Civil War, and during the Reconstruction era the community was racially divided. The Freedmen’s Bureau organized a branch in Nacogdoches, and in response, a chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was organized in Chireno to keep black voters from the polls. The period of unrest gradually came to a rest during the 1870s.